I originally trained as a veterinarian and practiced small animal and laboratory animal medicine for 10 years before moving into toxicological pathology. As a pathologist I have 30 years’ experience in regulatory toxicology / safety assessment and discovery support across a range of therapeutic areas (eg inhaled medicines, CNS, oncology) and modalities (small molecules and biopharmaceuticals) within large Pharma. In the last 10 years I have focused more on cell and gene therapies for rare diseases and oncology. I was the nonclinical project team member for Strimvelis (for treatment of ADA-SCID) which achieved a successful marketing application in 2016 - the first licensed ex vivo gene therapy anywhere in the world. Since March 2021 I am working as an independent pathology consultant. I am a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists.